Pelhams and Kimberwick Bits
Pelham bits consists of a mouth piece, a shank and a curb chain, 2 rein rings per side on the shank, and one cheek piece ring on the top of the shank. The top rein ring is located next to the mouth piece, as in a snaffle, and the rein that attaches to it is therefore called the snaffle rein. The lower ring, at the bottom of the shank, is called the curb rein due to its curb action.
Due to the severity of the curb in relation to a snaffle, it should not be used by novice riders. Double reins are also more complicated for a novice to handle. The Pelham should be ridden mainly off the snaffle rein, with the curb rein only coming into effect when needed.
The Kimberwick is a type of bit with a mouth piece and Dee-shaped rings on either side. The Dee ring is offset, so the mouth piece is on the upper part of the flat side of the Dee, and the kimberwick uses a curb chain. This allows the kimberwick to have a mild curb effect, which does not occur in snaffles Unlike pelhams, the kimberwick does not have shanks, and is only used with one rein.
The Uxeter kimberwick has slots in the curved portion of the Dee, so that the rein is fixed. This increases the curb effect, especially when the rein is placed on the lower of the two slots. The kimberwick acts very similar snaffle bits, with only a very mild curb effect, when the rein is allowed to slide freely along the curved portion of the Dee.
The kimberwick can have the same mouth pieces as a Pelham.
Kimberwicks offer a rider a curb effect without the risk of a shank getting caught on something, which is useful for contact sports, such as polo-cross.